Drafting International Arbitration Clauses

Corporate Practice - SS LAW CODES

The inclusion of well-drafted arbitration clauses within contracts is paramount for efficiently resolving disputes that may arise across borders. These clauses not only serve as a roadmap for navigating potential conflicts but also provide a framework for maintaining confidentiality, minimizing costs, and expediting resolution. In this article, we explore the essential elements, optional provisions, and pitfalls to avoid when drafting international arbitration clauses, along with model clauses and considerations for expedited arbitration.

Essential Matters to Include in an Arbitration Agreement:

When drafting an international arbitration clause, certain essential matters must be delineated to ensure the effectiveness and enforceability of the agreement. These include:

  • Agreement to Arbitrate: The arbitration clause should unambiguously express the parties’ intention to resolve disputes through arbitration rather than litigation.
  • Governing Law: Specifying the governing law that will govern the arbitration agreement and the substantive issues involved in the dispute.
  • Seat or Place of Arbitration: Designating the legal jurisdiction or physical location where the arbitration proceedings will take place.
  • Number and Selection of Arbitrators: Determining the number of arbitrators (single arbitrator or tribunal) and outlining the process for their appointment or selection.
  • Arbitration Rules: Identifying the procedural rules that will govern the arbitration proceedings, whether institutional (e.g., ICC, LCIA) or ad hoc (e.g., UNCITRAL).
  • Language of Arbitration: Stipulating the language(s) in which the arbitration proceedings will be conducted and the language of the arbitral award.


Optional Matters to Include in an Arbitration Agreement:

While the essential elements provide the foundation for an arbitration clause, parties may also choose to include additional provisions to tailor the agreement to their specific needs and preferences. Optional matters may include:

  • Confidentiality: Expressly stating that arbitration proceedings and awards will remain confidential, barring limited exceptions.
  • Cost Allocation: Clarifying how costs associated with arbitration, including arbitrators’ fees, administrative expenses, and legal fees, will be allocated between the parties.
  • Interim Measures and Emergency Relief: Authorizing arbitrators to grant interim measures or emergency relief to preserve parties’ rights pending the resolution of the dispute.
  • Appeal Mechanisms: Specifying whether parties have the right to appeal arbitral awards and outlining the procedure for such appeals, if applicable.
  • Multi-Tiered Dispute Resolution Clauses: Incorporating mechanisms for pre-arbitration negotiation, mediation, or other forms of alternative dispute resolution before resorting to arbitration.


Pathological Arbitration Agreements:

Despite careful drafting, arbitration clauses may sometimes contain flaws or ambiguities that render them unenforceable or ineffective. These “pathological” arbitration agreements may arise due to various reasons, such as:

  • Ambiguity or Vagueness: Clauses that fail to clearly define essential terms or procedures, leading to uncertainty or disputes over their interpretation.
  • Unilateral Modification: Agreements that grant one party the unilateral right to modify or terminate the arbitration clause without the consent of the other party.
  • Exclusion of Essential Elements: Clauses that omit essential elements required for a valid arbitration agreement, such as the agreement to arbitrate or the designation of a seat of arbitration.

To avoid such pitfalls, parties should ensure that arbitration clauses are drafted with precision, clarity, and attention to detail, taking into account applicable laws and best practices in international arbitration.


Model Arbitration Clauses:

Model arbitration clauses provide standardized templates or language for drafting arbitration agreements, offering parties a convenient starting point for crafting their own clauses. Some widely recognized model clauses include:

  • ICC Model Clause: “Any dispute arising out of or in connection with this contract shall be finally settled under the Rules of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce by one or more arbitrators appointed in accordance with the said Rules.”
  • LCIA Model Clause: “Any dispute arising out of or in connection with this contract, including any question regarding its existence, validity, or termination, shall be referred to and finally resolved by arbitration under the LCIA Rules.”
  • UNCITRAL Model Clause: “Any dispute, controversy, or claim arising out of or relating to this contract, or the breach, termination, or invalidity thereof, shall be settled by arbitration in accordance with the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules.”

Parties may adapt these model clauses to suit their specific requirements, including modifications to the number of arbitrators, governing law, and seat of arbitration.


Expedited Arbitration:

Expedited arbitration provisions offer parties a mechanism for resolving disputes more quickly and efficiently, often by streamlining procedural requirements and imposing tighter timelines. Key considerations for expedited arbitration clauses include:

  • Fast-Track Procedures: Incorporating provisions for expedited or fast-track procedures within institutional arbitration rules, allowing for accelerated resolution of disputes.
  • Simplified Procedures: Simplifying procedural requirements, such as limiting document production, shortening timeframes for submissions and hearings, and restricting the length of pleadings and awards.
  • Emergency Arbitrator Provisions: Authorizing the appointment of emergency arbitrators to grant interim measures or emergency relief on an expedited basis, pending the constitution of the arbitral tribunal.

By including expedited arbitration provisions in their agreements, parties can achieve faster, cost-effective, and responsive resolution of their disputes, particularly in cases where time is of the essence.



Drafting effective international arbitration clauses requires careful consideration of essential elements, optional provisions, model clauses, and expedited arbitration mechanisms. By crafting clear, comprehensive, and tailored arbitration agreements, parties can mitigate the risks of disputes, enhance the efficiency of arbitration proceedings, and promote the enforceability and effectiveness of their contracts in the global marketplace.

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